A nightmare is frequently defined as a long, frightening dream that awakens the sleeper. The assumption underlying the use of the waking criterion in defining nightmares is that sleepers awaken from a nightmare because of the extreme intensity of the emotions experienced within it. If the magnitude of negative emotions in a dream is not great enough to awaken the sleeper, then the dream is not sufficiently disturbing to be classified as a nightmare. Although a causal link between emotional intensity and awakening from a dream is a plausible hypothesis, there is no empirical evidence to support this view. On the contrary, evidence exists to support the idea that even the most unpleasant of dreams do not necessarily awaken the sleeper. Based on data from more recent studies, some researchers have suggested that disturbing dreams which awaken the sleeper should be called “nightmares” whereas disturbing dreams which do not awaken the sleeper should be called “bad dreams.”
Several reports have also shown that although fear is the most common emotion in disturbing dreams, these dreams can also contain a variety of other unpleasant emotions such as anger, sadness, and frustration. A nightmare is thus defined as a disturbing dream in which the unpleasant visual imagery and/or emotions awaken the sleeper. A bad dream is a disturbing dream which, though being unpleasant, does not cause the dreamer to wake up.
Nightmares Versus Sleep Terrors
Traditionally, the term “nightmare” has been used to refer to two distinct types of sleep phenomena, actual nightmares and what are known as sleep terrors. However, nightmares and night terrors can be differentiated both biologically and psychologically. For example, nightmares are characterized by the presence of vivid visual imagery (frequently situations in which the dreamer is in danger) and strong negative affect (e.g., intense fear, anxiety, or guilt). These dreams are usually remembered in detail, typically end with the subject’s waking up (in a non-confused state), and occur largely in REM sleep during the second half of the night. By contrast, sleep terrors (sometimes called pavor nucturnus in children and incubus attack in adults) are marked by a sense of confusion upon awakening, the usual absence of recall of elaborate dream imagery, and the presence of intense autonomic activation. They typically occur in slow-wave sleep (stage 3-4 sleep) during the first hours of sleep, and amnesia for the entire episode is typical upon awakening in the morning.
Prevalence of Nightmares
Approximately 5% to 7% of adults report a current problem with nightmares. Two surveys have assessed the incidence of complaints of nightmares, rather than the general rate of nightmare occurrence, in the general public. Together, these two surveys indicate that 5% to 8% of the general population report a current problem with nightmares, with about 6% reporting a previous complaint. In a national survey of over 4000 physicians, 4% of patients reported nightmares as one of their complaints in the course of the interviews. More recent studies indicate that the prevalence of nightmares may be considerably higher. Among clinical populations, approximately 24% of non-psychotic patients seen in psychiatric emergency services report nightmares. Similarly, approximately 25% of both chronic male alcoholics and female alcohol and drug users report having nightmares every few nights. Although nightmares can occur in “normal” individuals, they have been documented to occur as a concomitant of numerous traumatic experiences. For example, the occurrence of nightmares has been reported in subjects with post-traumatic stress disorder; combat veterans; survivors of the Holocaust ; Latin American survivors of torture; prisoners of war; survivors of natural disasters; young victims of kidnapping; the sexually abused; refugees.
Nightmares and Psychopathology
Much of the previous nightmare research had been dedicated to investigating the possible association between nightmare frequency and psychopathology. Though most studies have found a relationship, others have not. Taken together, these studies indicate that in at least some people who report nightmares there exists a relationship between nightmare frequency and psychopathology. The nature of this relationship, however, remains unclear. Moreover, no single measure or pattern of psychopathology has been exclusively or consistently associated with nightmare frequency.
Theories of Nightmares
– Early Views
Early views on nightmares centered around the idea that nightmares involved the visitations of monsters, demons, ghosts, or other evil spirits. In his work On the Nightmare, Ernest Jones (1931) examined the extent to which dreams influenced the development of various beliefs about the soul. He argued that nightmares contributed to the rise of superstitious beliefs in incubi, vampires, werewolves, devils and witchcraft. Jones also cites mythologists who suggested that the belief in all kinds of spirits could be traced to the experiences of the nightmare. For instance, he quotes from Golther (1895) who writes that “The belief in the soul rests in great part on the conception of torturing and oppressing spirits. Only as a gradual extension of this did the belief arise in spirits that displayed other activities than torturing and oppressing. In the first place, however, the belief in spirits took its origin in the Nightmare”.
Though Freud was a certainly a prolific writer (his collected publications amount to twenty-four volumes and he wrote extensively about dreams in twenty-six different articles or books) he had surprisingly little to say about nightmares. Nightmares, which awaken the dreamer, are counterexamples to Freud’s theory which emphasizes that dreams are ‘the guardians of sleep.’ Freud (1920) included nightmares in his wish-fulfillment theory of dreams by suggesting that nightmares represented wishes for punishment emanating from the superego. By 1925, Freud had included aggression as a primary drive in his drive theory, and posited that nightmares were “an expression of immoral, incestuous and perverse impulses or of murderous and sadistic lusts”. Freud apparently became dissatisfied with this initial explanation of nightmares and recognized that his theory did not adequately explain recurrent (traumatic) nightmares. He later tried to account for recurrent nightmares by suggesting that they represented a “repetition compulsion” ó a primitive and regressive tendency to recreate unpleasant experiences (Freud, 1955). However, several psychoanalysts have continued to argue that recurrent nightmares, no matter how disturbing the dream content, represent the fulfillment of disguised unconscious wishes.
Jung believed that nightmares, like most other types of dreams, serve a compensatory function. If people became too flippant or perfunctory in their conscious attitude, then a dream could enhance the situation and compensate for that waking state in a way that produced a nightmare. Similarly, nightmares could “shock” a dreamer in order to impart messages difficult for that person to accept. Traumatic nightmares, however, are not viewed in Jungian dream theory as being compensatory because they are largely unrelated to the dreamer’s conscious attitude and “conscious assimilation of the fragment [of the psyche] reproduced by the dream does not . . . put an end to the disturbance which determined the dreams”.
altar tomb – A solid, rectangular, raised tomb or gravernarker resembling ceremonial altars of classical antiquity and Judeo-Christian ritual.
bevel marker -A rectangular gravemarker, set low to the ground, having straight sides and uppermost, inscribed surface raked at a low angle.
bolster – a form of gravestone where a cylinder (usually at least 18 inches in diameter and 36 or more inches long) rests on its side on a footing. Bolsters were most common in the early twentieth century
burial – grave; the body within the grave; the act of burying a body.
burial, primary – a burial where the body is placed in its grave shortly after death, with no prior or temporary burial. Primary burial is the most common form of burial in most modem cemetery traditions
burial, secondary – a burial where the body has spent considerable time (often several years) in a temporary resting place before removal to its final resting place. Secondary burials have been fairly common in various death traditions around the worfd and persist mostly in traditions that have strong non-Western folk elements
burial, urn – the burial of an urn with cremated remains in it.
burial axis – the line that follows along the length of the body in a burial; the “length” of the grave
burial ground – Also “burying ground;” same as “graveyard”
burial site – A place for disposal of burial remains, including various forms of encasement and platform burials that are not excavated in the ground or enclosed by mounded earth.
cairn – a pile of rocks. Cairns can be erected over graves as markers, as bases to support crosses or other upright markers, or as protective devices from scavenging animals. comp. mound, rock.
Cemetery – any place where more than one body has been buried, especially (but not necessarily) with grave markers. Different governmental agencies have slightly different criteria for what legally constitutes a cemetery.
Cenotaph – a grave where the body is not present; a memorial erected as over a grave, but at a place where the body has not been interred. A cenotaph may look exactly like any other grave in terms of marker and inscription. Cenotaphs often commemorate the deaths of those lost at sea, in war, or by some other means where recovery or transportation of a body would be difficult.
Centerpiece – a sculpture or other monument, usually in the middle of a cemetery, commemorating no one in particular, but for the benefit of all buried there. Centerpieces usually are religious and are quite prominent in many Catholic traditions, as with the ornate crucifixion scenes of French-Canadian cemeteries and the large crosses of Mexican cemeteries.
Coffin – a box for holding a body at burial, made of wood, metal or concrete Columbarium – a building for the housing of cremated remains. comp. mausoleum.
Coped stone – any stone with a coping, especially one with a peaked (roof-shaped) top. Coped stones were common in the British cemetery tradition from the eighteenth through the early twentieth centuries.
Coping – a narrow ornamental thickening and overhang of the margin of the top of a gravestone. The term comes from a sort of roof element, and a coping resembles a small, overhanging roof.
Cremation – the burning of human remains before their disposal. In the United States, some cremated remains are placed in cemeteries or columbaria, while others are strewn over the ocean or retained in survivors’ homes.
Crematorium – A furnace for incinera tion of the dead; also crematory.
Crown – the central hump in a crowned gravestone.
crown, lateral – on a crowned gravestone, one of the (usually lower) humps on the sides.
Crowned – referring to a gravestone shape where the top rises in several (usually three) humps, usually withthe central one higher than the others. see crown; crown, lateral.
Crypt – An enclosure for a casket in a mausoleum or underground chamber, as beneath a church. dressed – referring to stone whose surface has been completely smoothed or otherwise finished.
Emerging Stone – a type of gravestone where one portion of the stone has been fully carved, while another portion remains undressed or only partially dressed, giving the impression of a stone that has been incompletely carved. The emerging stone was most common in the late nineteenth and earfv twentieth centuries and symbolized a life partially completed but cut short. tmerging stones are nearly always of granite.
Epitaph – a brief saying or literary note, inscribed in a grave marker. The name, places and dates of birth and death, and other such biographical information that may be part of the inscription are not considered part of the epitaph.
Exedra – A permanent open air masonry bench with high back, usually semicircular in plan, patterned after the porches or alcoves of classical antiquity where philosophical discussions were held; in cemeteries, used as an element of landscape design and as a type of tomb monument.
Exhumation – the removal of a body from a grave.
Family Stone – a gravestone that marks the entire family’s plot, not a particular individual’s grave. In the United States, such stones are most common in the European traditions. Sometimes a family stone also will have the names and dates of the individuals of the family carved on it, but there usually will be separate stones for the individuals.
Finial – an ornament atop a post or similar element in furniture or other craft. Finials can occur on the posts of grave fences or (less commonly) on grave markers themselves. Finials always have radial symmetry, as if formed on a lathe.
Footboard – a flat, slab-like wooden grave marker placed at the foot end of a grave. Footboards are used only in conjunction with headboards and usually are considerably smaller and less ornate, often bearing only initials as inscriptions.
Footing – a slab, usually of concrete, that is horizontal and flush with the surface of the ground, on which a grave marker is placed. The footing itself usually is unornamented and considered structural, not a part of the marker itself.
Footstone – a flat, slab-like stone grave marker placed at the foot end of a grave. Footstones, are used only in conjunction with headstones and usually are considerably smaller and less ornate, often bearing only initials as inscriptions
Grave – the individual feature where a body (rarely more than one body) is buried in a single pit or its equivalent, including any marker or monument associated with it.
grave, mass – a grave where many people are buried together. In most historic societies, mass graves have been expedients for emergencies when death was massive and rapid, as during an epidemic, war, or disaster.
grave, multiple – a grave where two or more bodies are buried together. A multiple grave may be a mass grave or simply a grave where members of a family or other social groups are placed upon death. Multiple graves are rather uncommon in recent historic societies.
grave, outlying – a grave that is located well away from others. Such graves often are given to members of society deemed unacceptable. In Catholic cemeteries, outlying graves may be for excommunicates, suicides, and the like.
Grave curb – a low border, usually of stone or concrete, surrounding a grave or plot, beginning slightly underground and extending no more than a few inches above the surface of the ground. A grave curb is open in the middle, although the central area may be filled with gravel, scraped earth, or lawn. comp. grave fence; paving.
grave depression – a hollow in the surface of the ground over a grave, brought about by the collapse of a disintegrating coffin. syn. grave, sunken.
grave fence – a fence surrounding a grave or plot completely, usually one or more feet high. A grave fence can be of the most homely materials or of elegant and expensive commercial fencing. e.g. cerquita. comp. grave curb; grave rail.
gravehouse – a ramada (roof with comer posts supporting it) over a grave, or a shed over a grave. The gravehouse is known especially from the American South. It probably developed there from local Indian usage, but it may have developed from a weaker tradition in England.
grave lamp – any type of lighting device placed on a grave, apparently symbolizing eternal light (in the Judeo-Christian tradition). It may be kept lighted or not; it may even be incapable of being lighted, as with a lighi bulb placed on the surface of a grave, a fairly common grave offering in various parts of the American South.
grave landscaping – any modification of the grave area in terms of plantings, gardens, fountains, or the like. Grave landscaping is most prominent with elite graves, such as that of Douglas Fairbanks, Sr., the famous actor. His grave has fountains, reflecting pools, a shrine, and trees. Grave landscaping in America began essentially with the rural cemetery movement of the mid-nineteenth century, beginning in the Northeast.
grave marker – any above-ground device or monument to mark a grave. e.g. gravestone; grave rail.
grave offering – any item sacrificed or donated at a grave. A grave offering may be durable and visible (e.g., shells, jewelry), ephemeral (e.g., wine or beer poured into the ground), or anywhere in between (e.g., flowers). Grave offerings may be conceived as items of use to the deceased in the afterlife, as items to enhance or commemorate the status of the deceased (and his or her survivors), or as simple obligations. A grave offering may be made at the time of burial and included in the coffin or grave pit with the bc~dy, or it may be placed on the grave at any time after burial. e.g. libation. grave pit the actual hole into which a body is placed, including a filled-in hole. grave post a simple wooden post used as a grave marker.
grave rail – a wooden rail placed along the long side (burial axis) of a grave on the surface as a grave marker. Normally, grave rails form a pair, one on each side of the grave.
gravestone – a stone grave marker; more loosely, any grave marker. syn. tombstone. comp. memorial; monument.
Graveyard – An area set aside for burial of the dead; a common burying ground of a church or community. headboard – a flat, slab-like wooden grave marker placed at the head end of a grave. Headboards may be used alone or in conjunction with footboards. see footboard. comp. headstone.
Headstone – a flat, stab-like stone grave marker placed at the held end of a grave. Headstones may be used alone or in conjunction with footstones. sce footstone.
Impressed – decoration is made by pressing something against the surface of the concrete while it is wet, then removing it, leaving an impression. This is fairly common technique in various folk cemetery traditions, with leaves and crucifixes among the more commonly impressed items. incising the creating of aline by drawing a stylus or similar tool through the surface of a wet material before it hardens.
Incising – is a common method of making inscriptions or producing artwork on concrete markers, particularly in folk traditions. I
inhumation – the burial of a body in the ground
initial stone – a gravestone with initials carved at the base as a maker’s mark
inscription – writing on a grave marker. By convention, this term is used regirdle-sof the technique used to render the writing (e.g., carving, painting, etc.). The inscription usually includes biographical information and the epitiph, if any. -inscription, relict the traces of an inscription, otherwise destroyed, that may reveal that inscription.
inset – referring to the placing of objects in the concrete of a grave marker w hen it was wet
interment – the burial or other disposition ofa dead body layout – the spatial organization of a cemetery
layout, chronological – a cemetery layout where grave- are arranged by death order, with no consideration of family or other alliances.
layout, family-plot – a cemeterv layout where graves are arranged by family affiliation, not by death order.
ledger stone – a grave marker that is placed horizontally, flush with the surface of the earth. This style marker has become increasingly popular with cemetery maintenance workers because of the case of mowing grass around and over them.
lichgate – an arching gate, usually of iron, at the entrance to a cemetery. lot – an area of a cemetery owned or controlled by an individual or family.
maker’s mark – a distinctive mirk, usually initials or a name, placed on a gravestone as an indication of its maker.
mausoleum – a building for the housing of bodies in separate drawer,- or compirtments. A mausoleum differs from 1 tomb in that it is owned communally by tile cemetery and patrons purchase rights to a section of it, while a tomb is built, owned, and used exclusively by a single family or similar group.
memorial – a grave marker, usually in ornate one
Memorial park – A cemetery of the 20th century cared for in perpetuity by a business or nonprofit corporation; generally characterized by open expanses of greensward with either flush or other regulated gravernarkers; in the last half of the 19th century, those with flush markers were called “lawn” cemeteries.
Monolith – A large, vertical stone gravernarker having no base or cap. monument – a grave marker, usually one with sorne fanciness and size.
Motif – any more or less standardized artistic theme or representation, such as a rose, cherub, or urn-and-willow.
mound – a pile of earth or similar material erected over a grave as a form of marker. Earthen mounds are common in many pre-modern societies around the world (e.g., Adena and Hopewell societies of North American prehistory, Neolithicand Bronze Age societies of prehistoric Furope, the jornon Culture of prehistoric Japan, etc.), but earthen mounds are less common in recent burial traditions and tend to be small when they do Occur.
mound, rock – a low pile of rock, often admixed with earth, erected over a grave.
National cemetery – One of 130 burial grounds established by the Congress of the United States since 1862 for interment of armed forces servicemen and women whose last service ended honorably. Presently, the Department of Veterans Affairs maintains 114, the National Park Service (Department of the Interior) administers 14, and the Department of the Army has responsibility for two.
neoclassical – referring to the art style of the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, where motifs and scenes drawn from classical Greece and were used in decoration. Urns, draperies, columns, and certain human poses typify this style.
Niche – in general, any recess in the surface of something; a compartment in a columbariurn or other area for the placement of cremation remains.
nimbus – a halo-like representation in Christian art, especially the representation of such a glow at the intersection of the upright and arm of a cross. In such a position, the nimbus indicates that the cross was that on which Jesus was crucified. The nimbus can be circular, diamond-shaped, oval, jagged, or even square.
obelisk – a gravestone that is tall, slender, square in cross-section, and pointed at the top. Obelisks usually are quite large and imposing, indicating the wealth and stature of the deceased.
openwork – carving that cuts entirely through a stone, creating arches, loops, and openings.
Orientation – the direction of the burial axis of a grave. The direction to which the head points, (or at least where the main marker is) is usually considered the orientation.
paving – a surface of concrete, brick, or stone placed on the ground over a grave. Pavings often are used in conjunction with grave markers, although some traditions (e.g., Mennonites) typically simply incise the inscription into a concrete paving and provide no other marker.
Peristyle – A colonnade surrounding the exterior of a building, such as a mausoleum, or a range of columns supporting an entablature (a beam) that stands free to define an outdoor alcove or open space.
Pillar – a grave marker consisting of a tall, slender, ornate gravestone with a circular cross-section. Pillars give the appearance of being turned on a lathe and actually derive from the British tradition of Georgian furniture.
Plot – an area of a cemetery given over to an individual, family, or other social group. The term is more inclusive than “lot,” since a lot can occur only in a cemetery with some institutional organization that assigns areas; in contrast, a plot can develop through usage in a customary cemetery
rippling – the undulating or ridged marks left on the back side of a hand-carved gravestone by the chisel, as it was used to thin the stone to its slab-like shape.
rubbing – means of obtaining a copy of the bas-relief cirving on a gravestone or similar object. Rubbings are niade by placing rice paper over tile surface of tile marker,then rubbinggently oil thepaperwitha soft pencil,a crayon,ora similar writing material. Rubbings are quite accurate in their copying of a design, but some cemeteries have had to forbid the making of rubbings, because the activity is slowly wearing away the stirface of the stories.
Sarcophagus – A stone coffin or monumental chamber for a casket.
sculpture – any carving or other rendering of stone where all three dimensions (including depth) are used.
Sepulcher – A burial vault or crypt.
sidepanel – on a gravestone, a decorative stripalong one vertical side.
Slab – any grave marker that is essentiallya thin, flat piece. Slabs can be of any material but usually are of stone, concrete, or wood.
slope – on a gravestone with a convex upper surface, either of the upper surfaces that curve or angle downward frorn the storie’s highest point.
Stamping – the placing of an inscription in concrete by pressing letter molds into it while wet.
Tablet – A rectangular gravernarker set at a right angle to the ground, having inscriptions, raised lettering or carved decoration predominantly on vertical planes, and top surface finished in straight, pedimented, round, oval, or serpentine fashion.
terrazzo – a synthetic material sometime- used for grave markers. Terrazzo consists of chunks of stone, glass, or ceramics mixed intoa fine cement.
tomb – a building-like burial receptacle, Anywhere a body or bodies are stored above ground in drawers. A tomb may be grand, but it houses the remains of only a few people, usually family members.
tomb,false – a type of grave marker where a slab of stone or concrete covers the area of a grave and extends above the gorund anywhere from a few inches to a coupld of feet. A false tomb most frequently is boxy, but it may be rounded or otherwise embellished. It may have an accompanying gravestone, or it may bear an inscription itself. It is not a true tomb, since the burial is underground.
tomb, table – a stone grave marker similar to a chest tomb but differing in that its top is supported by small columns it the corner only.
undressed – referring to a stone marker that has not had its surface completely smoothed or otherwise finished.
Upright stone – a grave marker that is placed upright, above the stirface of the ground
vault – a tomb; a modern concrete shell placed over a coffin to prevent sinking of the ground surface in a cemetery.
wedgestone – a style of grave marker, usually of stone but occasionally of concrete. A wedge stone, not surprisingly, is essentially wedge-shaped, so that the bottom surface lies flat on the ground, the back surface runs more or less vertically, and the top surface (with the inscription) slope-, from the top of the stone at its back to ground level at its front.
“The only thing we have to fear is fear it’self – nameless, unreasoning, unjustified,terror which paralyzes needed efforts to convert retreat into advance.”
—-FDR – First Inaugural Address, March 4, 1933
“One of the things which danger does to you after a time is -, well, to kill emotion.
I don’t think I shall ever feel anything again except fear. None of us can hate anymore – or love.”
—-Graham Greene – The Confidential Agent (1939)
“What are fears but voices airy?
Whispering harm where harm is not.
And deluding the unwary
Till the fatal bolt is shot!”
“Fear is an uneasiness of the mind, upon the thought of future danger likely to befall us.”
“Where no hope is left, is left no fear.”
“Fear is a tyrant and a despot, more terrible than the rack, more potent than the snake.”
—-Edgar Wallace – The Clue of the Twisted Candle (1916)
“Fear makes the wolf bigger than he is.”
“Men fear death as children fear to go in the dark.”
—- Francis Bacon
“The oldest and strongest emotion of mankind is fear.”
— H.P. Lovecraft
“I must not fear. Fear is the mind-killer. Fear is the little-death that brings total obliteration.
I will face my fear. I will permit it to pass over me and through me. And when it has gone
past I will turn the inner eye to see its path. Where the fear has gone there will be nothing.
Only I will remain.”
—Frank Herbert, Dune – Bene Gesserit Litany Against Fear
“A man who has been in danger,
When he comes out of it forgets his fears,
And sometimes he forgets his promises.”
—-Euripides – Iphigenia in Tauris (414-12 BC)
“Being frightened is an experience you can’t buy.”
—-Anthony Price – Sion Crossing (1984)
“What we fear comes to pass more speedily than what we hope.”
—-Publilius Syrus – Moral Sayings (1st C B.C.)
“Why are we scared to die? Do any of us remember being scared when we were born?”
“A good scare is worth more to a man than good advice.”
—-Edgar Watson Howe – Country Town Sayings (1911)
Fear (Fear) (?), n.
A variant of Fere, a mate, a companion. [Obs.] Spenser.
Fear (Fear), n.
[OE. fer, feer, fere, AS. før a coming suddenly upon, fear, danger; akin to D. vaar, OHG. faØra danger, G. gefahr, Icel. faØr harm, mischief, plague, and to E. fare, peril. See Fare.]
1. A painful emotion or passion excited by the expectation of evil, or the apprehension of impending danger; apprehension; anxiety; solicitude; alarm; dread.
^ The degrees of this passion, beginning with the most moderate, may be thus expressed, — apprehension, fear, dread, fright, terror.
“Fear is an uneasiness of the mind, upon the thought of future danger likely to befall us.” Locke.
“Where no hope is left, is left no fear.” Milton.
2. (Script.) (a) Apprehension of incurring, or solicitude to avoid, God’s wrath; the trembling and awful reverence felt toward the Supreme Being. (b) Respectful reverence for men of authority or worth. “I will put my fear in their hearts.” Jer. xxxii. 40. “I will teach you the fear of the Lord.” Ps. xxxiv. 11. “render therefore to all their dues; tribute to whom tribute is due . . . fear to whom fear.” Rom. xiii. 7.
3. That which causes, or which is the object of, apprehension or alarm; source or occasion of terror; danger; dreadfulness. “There were they in great fear, where no fear was.” Ps. liii. 5. “The fear of your adventure would counsel you to a more equal enterprise.” Shak.
— For fear, in apprehension lest. “For fear you ne’er see chain nor money more.” Shak.
Fear (Fear), v. t.
[imp. & p. p. Feared (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Fearing.]
[OE. feren, faeren, to frighten, to be afraid, AS. føran to terrify. See Fear, n.]
1. To feel a painful apprehension of; to be afraid of; to consider or expect with emotion of alarm or solicitude.
“I will fear no evil, for thou art with me.” Ps. xxiii.
With subordinate clause.
“I greatly fear my money is not safe.” Shak.
“I almost fear to quit your hand.” D. Jerrold.
2. To have a reverential awe of; to solicitous to avoid the displeasure of. “Leave them to God above; him serve and fear.” Milton.
3. To be anxious or solicitous for. [R.]
“The sins of the father are to be laid upon the children, therefore . . . I fear
4. To suspect; to doubt. [Obs.]
“Ay what else, fear you not her courage?” Shak.
5. To affright; to terrify; to drive away or prevent approach of by fear.
“fera their people from doing evil.”Robynsin (More’s utopia).
“Tush, tush! fear boys with bugs.” Shak.
Synonyms — To apprehend; dread; reverence; venerate.
Fear (Fear), v. i.
To be in apprehension of evil; to be afraid; to feel anxiety on account of some expected evil. “I exceedingly fear and quake.” Heb. xii. 21.
Fear [AS. foer]: Ger. Furcht; Fr. peur, crainte (higher forms); Ital. paura, timore (higher). (1) An emotion, arising in a situation demanding practical adjustment; but of such a nature as to disable and disconcert either by its strangeness or by the threat of approaching evil. In intense fear no form of adjustment may be possible except evasion or escape; and in extreme cases even these are impossible. (G.F.S., J.M.B.)
(2) The emotion arising from the EXPECTATION (q.v.) of what is disagreeable. In this sense fear is contrasted with hope, as in the expression ‘hopes and fears.’ See HOPE AND DESPAIR. (J.M.B., G.F.S.)
(1) Fear belongs to the primary emotions, i.e. to those which are found at every level of mental development above the mere sense reflex. It may have its source either in the disconcerting strangeness or obtrusiveness of an occurrence, or in previous painful experiences connected with the object which occasions it. Some writers (e.g. Spencer and H. M. Stanley) have laid one-sided emphasis on the second mode of origin. Spencer seems to identify fear (at least in its primitive form) with the revival of past painful experiences with connected motor activities. ‘To have in a slight degree such psychical states as accompany the reception of wounds, and are experienced during flight, is to be in a state of what we call fear’ (Psychology, viii. 213). H. M. Stanley agrees in affirming that ‘we can only have the pain of fear so far as we have experienced pain.’ But he denies, with good reason, that the pain of fear is merely a reoccurrence of the previous painful experiences on which it depends. Yet he goes to the other extreme in emphasizing a supposed ‘pain at pain.’ Both Stanley and Spencer seem to neglect the other possible occasion of fear — the startling and disconcerting effect of a strange, sudden, or violently obtrusive occurrence. But this is an undoubted condition of great importance, even in primitive forms of the emotion. The contrast between meanings (1) and (2) is that between lower or organic and higher or intellectual EMOTION (q.v.).
Literature: DARWIN, Expression of Emotions, 290 ff.; MOSSO, Fear (Eng. trans.);
SPENCER, Princ. of Psychol., viii. 213;
H. M. STANLEY, Evolutionary Psychol., chap. vii;
W. JAMES, Principles, ii. 396, 415, 446;
STOUT, Manual of Psychol. On the genetic relation between fears of the two sorts, see SCHNEIDER, Der thierische Wille, and BALDWIN, Social and Eth. Interpret., chap. vi. (G.F.S.- J.M.B.)
Fear (in religion) (1) A self-regarding emotion which had widespread influence on the character of religious thought and practices, especially in the higher animistic stage when sacrifices, magic, &c., became prevalent. At the same time, it should be noted that this influence may be easily exaggerated. For it has to be remembered that, after ceremonies had crystallized sufficiently, their due observance often transformed fear into confidence — confidence born of the realized propitiation of the cause of terror. It is customary to trace this phase of fear to the feeling of
DEPENDENCE (q.v.); hence such a famous phrase as ‘Primus in orbe deos fecit timor’ (Statius, Theb., iii. 661).
(2) In religions which contain a strong moral infusion, representing a much higher stage than that alluded to above, fear commonly implies conviction of misdeed. Here ‘conscience doth make cowards of us all.’ The self-regarding emotion gives place to an altruistic tendency caused by the connection which ‘conscience’ forms with the object of worship. Such phrases as ‘Perfect love casteth out fear’ (1 John iv. 18), and ‘The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom’ (Ps. cxi. 10), point to a devotion which obliterates mere self, and by this very fact lifts man to the highest religious level. Cf. RELIGION (psychology of).
Literature: A. R…VILLE, Prolegomena to the Hist. of Religions (Eng. trans.), 30 f., 67 f.;
Religions philosophie, 32f. The subject is treated incidentally in all competent works on primitive civilization.
Darwin’s Effects of Fear:
“Fear is often preceded by astonishment, and is so far akin to it that both lead to the senses of sight and hearing being instantly aroused. In both cases the eyes and mouth are widely opened and the eyebrows raised. The frightened man at first stands like a statue, motionless and breathless, or crouches down as if instinctively to escape observation. The heart beats quickly and violently, so that it palpitates or knocks against the ribs; but it is very doubtful if it then works more efficiently than usual, so as to send a greater supply of blood to all parts of the body; for the skin instantly becomes pale as during incipient faintness. This paleness of the surface, however, is probably in large part, or is exclusively, due to the vaso-motor centre being affected in such a manner as to cause the contraction of the small arteries of the skin. That the skin is much affected under the sense of great fear, we see in the marvellous manner in which perspiration immediately exudes from it. This exudation is all the more remarkable, as the surface is then cold, and hence the term, a cold sweat; whereas the sudorific glands are properly excited into action when the surface is heated. The hairs also on the skin stand erect, and the superficial muscles shiver. In connection with the disturbed action of the heart the breathing is hurried. The salivary glands act imperfectly; the mouth becomes dry and is often opened and shut. I have also noticed that under slight fear there is strong tendency to yawn. One of the best marked symptoms is the trembling of all the muscles of the body; and this is often first seen in the lips. From this cause, and from the dryness of the mouth, the voice becomes husky or indistinct or may altogether fail. ‘Obstupui steteruntque comÊ, et vox faucibus hÊsit.’ . . . As fear increases into an agony of terror, we behold, as under all violent emotions, diversified results. The heart beats wildly or must fail to act and faintness ensue; there is a death-like pallor; the breathing is labored; the wings of the nostrils are widely dilated; there is a gasping and convulsive motion of the lips, a tremor on the hollow cheek, a gulping and catching of the throat; the uncovered and protruding eyeballs are fixed on the object of terror; or they may roll restlessly from side to side, huc illuc volens oculos totumque pererrat. The pupils are said to be enormously dilated. All the muscles of the body may become rigid or may be thrown into convulsive movements. The hands are alternately clenched and opened, often with a twitching movement. The arms may be protruded as if to avert some dreadful danger, or may be thrown wildly over the head. The Rev. Mr. Hagenauer has seen this latter action in a terrified Australian. In other cases there is a sudden and uncontrollable tendency to headlong flight; and so strong is this that the boldest soldiers may be seized with a sudden panic.”
“To have in a slight degree,” he says, “such psychical states as accompany the reception of wounds, and are experienced during flight, is to be in a state of what we call fear. And to have in a slight degree such psychical states as the processes of catching, killing, and eating imply, is to have the desires to catch, kill, and eat. That the propensities to the acts are nothing else than nascent excitations of the psychical state involved in the acts, is proved by the natural language of the propensities. Fear, when strong, expresses itself in cries, in efforts to escape, in palpitations, in tremblings; and these are just the manifestations that go along with an actual suffering of the evil feared. The destructive passion is shown in a general tension of the muscular system, in gnashing of teeth and protrusion of the claws, in dilated eyes and nostrils, in growls; and these are weaker forms of the actions that accompany the killing of prey. To such objective evidences every one can add subjective evidences. Every one can testify that the psychical state called fear consists of mental representations of certain painful results; and that the one called anger consists of mental representations of the actions and impressions which would occur while inflicting some kind of pain.”
About fear I shall have more to say presently. Meanwhile the principle of revival in weakened form of reactions useful in more violent dealings with the object inspiring the emotion, has found many applications. So slight a symptom as the snarl or sneer, the one-sided uncovering of the upper teeth, is accounted for by Darwin as a survival from the time when our ancestors had large canines, and unfleshed them (as dogs now do) for attack. Similarly the raising of the eyebrows in outward attention, the opening of the mouth in astonishment, come, according to the same author, from the utility of these movements in extreme cases. The raising of the eyebrows goes with the opening of the eye for better vision; the opening of the mouth with the intensest listening, and with the rapid catching of the breath which precedes muscular effort. The distention of the nostrils in anger is interpreted by Spencer as an echo of the way in which our ancestors had to breathe when, during combat, their “mouth was filled up by a part of an antagonist’s body that had been seized(!).” The trembling of fear is supposed by Mantegazza to be for the sake of warming the blood(!). The reddening of the face and neck is called by Wundt a compensatory arrangement for relieving the brain of the blood-pressure which the simultaneous excitement of the heart brings with it. The effusion of tears is explained both by this author and by Darwin to be a blood-withdrawing agency of a similar sort. The contraction of the muscles around the eyes, of which the primitive use is to protect those organs from being too much gorged with blood during the screaming fits of infancy, survives in adult life in the shape of the frown, which instantly comes over the brow when anything difficult or displeasing presents itself either to thought or action.
“We have seen that the graver the peril becomes, the more do the reactions which are positively harmful to the animal prevail in number and inefficacy. We already saw that the trembling and the palsy make it incapable of flight or defence; we have also convinced ourselves that in the most decisive moments of danger we are less able to see [or to think] than when we are tranquil. In face of such facts we must admit that the phenomena of fear cannot all be accounted for by ‘selection.’ Their extreme degrees are morbid phenomena which show an imperfection in the organism. We might almost say that Nature had not been able to frame a substance which should be excitable enough to compose the brain and spinal marrow, and yet which should not be so excited by exceptional stimulation as to overstep in its reactions those physiological bounds which are useful to the conservation of the creature.”
Flight — Flight from danger is probably the earliest and most deeply seated of the various lines of behaviour by which animals react to conditions which threaten their existence or their integrity. Flight may be regarded as a development of the reaction of repulsion from the noxious which is one of the fundamental modes of response to stimulation in those animals which are capable of mass-motion — attraction towards the beneficial or useful; repulsion from the harmful. Those instinctive reactions in which animals seek special sources of safety may be regarded as developments, or modifications, of the instinct of flight, while the instinctive cry which so often accompanies flight is probably a still later development arising out of the gregarious habit. Immobility — The three forms of reaction already considered resemble one another in that they involve definite activity on the part of the being, whether man or animal, threatened by danger. The mode of reaction now to be considered differs fundamentally from them in that it involves the complete cessation of movement, complete inhibition or suppression of the movements which would be brought into being by the instincts of flight and aggression, or by manipulation. The instinct which thus leads to the complete absence of movement seems to go very far back in the animal kingdom. It is often associated with purely physiological modes of reaction, such as changes in the distribution pigment, which increase the chances of safety of the animal by making it indistinguishable from its background. The instinctive reaction by means of immobility has the end of concealing the animal from the danger which threatens it, and this end of concealment is often assisted by other means, which may also be more or less instinctive in character.
Collapse –This last form of reaction to danger is one which has greatly puzzled biologists. The reaction is usually accompanied by tremors or irregular movements which wholly deprive the reaction of any serviceable character it might possess through the paralysis of movement: Haller has suggested that this form of reaction is useless to, or even prejudices the welfare of, the individual, it is useful to the race by eliminating, or helping to eliminate, the more timid members of the species. From this point of view the reaction would be a failure of the instinct of self preservation in the interest of the continuance of the species. I think we shall take a more natural view of the reaction by collapse if we regard it as a failure of the instinct of self-preservation taking place in animals when instinctive reactions to danger have been so overlaid by reactions of other kinds that, in the presence of excessive or unusual stimuli, the instinctive reactions fail. It is noteworthy that collapse with tremor seems to be especially characteristic of Man in whom all the different modes of reaction to danger found in the animal kingdom are present in some degree, but no one of them so specially developed as to form an immediate and invariable mode of behaviour in the presence of danger.
There is evidence also that collapse and tremor occur especially when there is frustration of an instinctive reaction. Thus, Brehm describes a motionless state, with staring eyes and tongues hanging out of their mouths, in seals which had been surprised in their favourite place of repose and cut off from their usual access to the sea. Again, as an example in Man, Mosso observed collapse with violent tremor in a youthful brigand condemned to summary execution. Emitting a shrill cry, the boy turned to flee, and rushing against a wall, writhed and scratched against it as if trying to force a way through. Baffled in his attempt to escape, he at last sank to the ground like a log and trembled as Mosso had never seen another tremble, as “though the muscles had been turned to a jelly shaken in all directions.”
Collapse and Terror — There is little doubt that the collapse, associated with tremor, which forms one mode of reacting to danger, especially in the higher animals, is accompanied by that excess of fear we call terror. This association, based on the experience of Man, may also be ascribed to animals. Though immobility and collapse resemble each other superficially, I suppose them to be poles apart so far as the accompanying affect is concerned.
The term shudder, in this way, is the common designation in speech for the phenomena arising from the sudden effects of cold upon the skin, and also from terrifying impressions. That the naÔve intelligence recognizes no distinction between the shuddering due to emotional, and that due to purely bodily causes, we perceive in the fairy tale of the youth, who went forth in order to find out what shuddering was, and who after seeking in vain to discover it in the company of the dead and of ghosts, had his wish fulfilled when he was thrown from his bed into a tub of ice cold water, which produced a more painful effect upon his vasomotor apparatus than the sight of corpses, and of ghosts.
Death (physiological) [OE.]: Ger. Tod; Fr. mort; Ital. morte. Final cessation of the vital functions. Death of the body (somatic death) occurs when one or more functions (respiration, circulation, excretion, nervous co-ordination)
become disturbed to such an extent as to render the harmonious working of the various organs impossible. A tissue is said to die when it loses permanently its power of responding to its appropriate stimuli. The brain and
nervous system die, in man and warm-blooded animals, at the moment of somatic death; gland tissue dies very soon after. Smooth muscle retains its irritability 45 minutes, skeletal muscle some hours, after death
Demonomania or Demon Possession [Gr. daimwn, a demon, + mania, madness]: Ger. D‰monomanie, Besessenheit; Fr. dÈmonomanie; Ital. demonomania. Demonomania is a morbid mental condition, in which the
patient believes himself, more usually herself, possessed by a demon. The term demon possession may be applied either to this condition or to the prevalent belief that certain forms of disease or manifestations are caused by demons. Possession and spirit possession are also used, to give a wider field for interpretation.
The condition may be considered either as a type of insanity, or in its historical aspects. As the former it is often akin to a religious melancholia, the patient believing himself eternally damned, suffering from agonies of self-accusation, and exhibiting many of the characteristics of melancholiacs. Another type of demonomania is the hysterical one, characterized by convulsions, and thus giving rise to the term Convulsionaires. Such demonomaniacs are subject to attacks of violence and fury, accompanied by starts and choreic jerks, and loud shouting, in which the central idea of possession by a demon is prominent. In extreme cases this crisis, which lasts from ten minutes to half an hour, may be accompanied by assaults on the bystanders, destruction of property, beating of their own bodies. A very constant symptom of the attack is anaesthesia. Ecstasy, catalepsy, and somnambulism may be noted; and most characteristic is the tendency of such attacks to be contagious and lead to epidemics (see CONTAGION). A. person so affected may be termed a demoniac or demonomaniac. It is especially significant as a symptom of the delirium of degeneracy. On the historic side, demon possession is important as a stage in the development of medical theory of disease, and as suggesting a rational explanation in terms of modern psychiatry of the actions and influences of abnormal individuals in former ages. In this connection it has an equal significance for the history of religion. Cf.
DEMONOLOGY (with literature there cited).
Fear [AS. foer]: Ger. Furcht; Fr. peur, crainte (higher forms); Ital. paura, timore (higher). (1) An emotion, arising in a situation demanding practical adjustment; but of such a nature as to disable and disconcert either by its
strangeness or by the threat of approaching evil. In intense fear no form of adjustment may be possible except evasion or escape; and in extreme cases even these are impossible.
Impression (aesthetic). The effect produced by the intrinsic qualities of an aesthetic object, as distinguished from its expression or suggestion of a meaning pointing beyond itself.
Emotion (aesthetic). What has generally been meant by the emotional element in aesthetic psychoses is a condition of mental excitation, whether agreeable, disagreeable, or both, involving processes of a distinctly intellectual and spiritual character, and especially such processes in distinction from merely sensuous pleasures and pains. In this sense the idea is most closely represented by the present use of the term SENTIMENT
Influence [Lat. in + fluere, to flow]: Ger. Einfluss; Fr. influence; Ital. influenza. That which enters in any way into the determination of a thing (1) is an influence, (2) has an influence, (3) exerts an influence; that is, the influence is (3) an element in the determination, (2) the capacity to contribute this element to the determination, (1) the thing which has such a capacity.
Anxiety [Lat. anxius, anxious, from angor, distress]: Ger. Angst, Be‰ngstigung; Fr. anxiÈtÈ, dÈlire anxieux, inquiÈtude; Ital. ansiet‡. (1) Relatively strong apprehension or fear of the type described under HOPE AND DESPAIR (q.v.).
(2) Pathological: solicitude, mental distress or agitation; either in dread or ] anticipation of some sorrow or trial, or as a general apprehensiveness of misfortune. Its specific expressions may be recognized in the worried aspect of the features and attitude, and in a feeling of constriction and distress in the praecordial region. It is a frequent symptom in various forms of nervous weakness and of mental disease. (J.J.)
It characterizes conditions of degeneracy, and is a symptom of Morel’s ’emotional delirium’ — dÈlire Èmotif
Ablutophobia- Fear of washing or bathing.
Acarophobia- Fear of itching or of the insects that cause itching.
Acerophobia- Fear of sourness.
Achluophobia- Fear of darkness.
Acousticophobia- Fear of noise.
Acrophobia- Fear of heights.
Aerophobia- Fear of drafts, air swallowing, or airbourne noxious substances.
Aeroacrophobia- Fear of open high places.
Aeronausiphobia- Fear of vomiting secondary to airsickness.
Agliophobia- Fear of pain.
Agoraphobia- Fear of open spaces or of being in crowded, public places like markets. Fear of leaving a safe place.
Agraphobia- Fear of sexual abuse.
Agrizoophobia- Fear of wild animals.
Agyrophobia- Fear of streets or crossing the street.
Aichmophobia- Fear of needles or pointed objects.
Ailurophobia- Fear of cats.
Albuminurophobia- Fear of kidney disease.
Alektorophobia- Fear of chickens.
Algophobia- Fear of pain.
Alliumphobia- Fear of garlic.
Allodoxaphobia- Fear of opinions.
Altophobia- Fear of heights.
Amathophobia- Fear of dust.
Amaxophobia- Fear of riding in a car.
Ambulophobia- Fear of walking.
Amnesiphobia- Fear of amnesia.
Amychophobia- Fear of scratches or being scratched.
Anablephobia- Fear of looking up.
Ancraophobia or Anemophobia- Fear of wind.
Androphobia- Fear of men.
Anemophobia- Fear of air drafts or wind.
Anginophobia- Fear of angina, choking or narrowness.
Anglophobia- Fear of England, English culture, etc.
Angrophobia – Fear of becoming angry.
Ankylophobia- Fear of immobility of a joint.
Anthrophobia or Anthophobia- Fear of flowers.
Anthropophobia- Fear of people or society.
Antlophobia- Fear of floods.
Anuptaphobia- Fear of staying single.
Apeirophobia- Fear of infinity.
Aphenphosmphobia- Fear of being touched. (Haphephobia)
Apiphobia- Fear of bees.
Apotemnophobia- Fear of persons with amputations.
Arachibutyrophobia- Fear of peanut butter sticking to the roof of the mouth.
Arachnephobia or Arachnophobia- Fear of spiders.
Arithmophobia- Fear of numbers.
Arrhenphobia- Fear of men.
Arsonphobia- Fear of fire.
Asthenophobia- Fear of fainting or weakness.
Astraphobia or Astrapophobia- Fear of thunder and lightning.
Astrophobia- Fear of stars and celestial space.
Asymmetriphobia- Fear of asymmetrical things.
Ataxiophobia- Fear of ataxia (muscular incoordination)
Ataxophobia- Fear of disorder or untidiness.
Atelophobia- Fear of imperfection.
Atephobia- Fear of ruin or ruins.
Athazagoraphobia- Fear of being forgotton or ignored or forgetting.
Atomosophobia – Fear of atomic explosions.
Atychiphobia- Fear of failure.
Aulophobia- Fear of flutes.
Aurophobia- Fear of gold.
Auroraphobia- Fear of Northern lights.
Autodysomophobia- Fear of one that has a vile odor.
Automatonophobia- Fear of ventriloquist’s dummies, animatronic creatures, wax statues – anything that falsly represents a sentient being.
Automysophobia- Fear of being dirty.
Autophobia- Fear of being alone or of oneself.
Aviophobia or Aviatophobia- Fear of flying.
Bacillophobia- Fear of microbes.
Bacteriophobia- Fear of bacteria.
Ballistophobia- Fear of missles or bullets.
Bolshephobia- Fear of Bolsheviks.
Barophobia- Fear of gravity.
Basophobia or Basiphobia- Inability to stand. Fear of walking or falling.
Bathophobia- Fear of depth.
Batonophobia- Fear of plants.
Batophobia- Fear of heights or being close to high buildings.
Batrachophobia- Fear of amphibians, such as frogs, newts, salamanders, etc.
Belonephobia- Fear of pins and needles. (Aichmophobia)
Bibliophobia- Fear of books.
Blennophobia- Fear of slime.
Bogyphobia- Fear of bogies or the bogeyman.
Bromidrosiphobia or Bromidrophobia- Fear of body smells.
Brontophobia- Fear of thunder and lightning.
Bufonophobia- Fear of toads.
Cacophobia- Fear of ugliness.
Cainophobia or Cainotophobia- Fear of newness, novelty.
Caligynephobia- Fear of beautiful women.
Cancerophobia- Fear of cancer.
Carcinophobia- Fear of cancer.
Cardiophobia- Fear of the heart.
Carnophobia- Fear of meat.
Catagelophobia- Fear of being ridiculed.
Catapedaphobia- Fear of jumping from high and low places.
Cathisophobia- Fear of sitting.
Catoptrophobia- Fear of mirrors.
Cenophobia or Centophobia- Fear of new things or ideas.
Ceraunophobia- Fear of thunder.
Chaetophobia- Fear of hair.
Cheimaphobia or Cheimatophobia- Fear of cold.
Chemophobia- Fear of chemicals or working with chemicals.
Cherophobia- Fear of gaiety.
Chionophobia- Fear of snow.
Chiraptophobia- Fear of being touched.
Cholerophobia- Fear of anger or the fear of cholera.
Chorophobia- Fear of dancing.
Chrometophobia or Chrematophobia- Fear of money.
Chromophobia or Chromatophobia- Fear of colors.
Chronophobia- Fear of time.
Chronomentrophobia- Fear of clocks.
Cibophobia or Sitophobia or Sitiophobia- Fear of food.
Claustrophobia- Fear of confined spaces.
Cleithrophobia or Cleisiophobia- Fear of being locked in an enclosed place.
Cleptophobia- Fear of stealing.
Climacophobia- Fear of stairs, climbing or of falling downstairs.
Clinophobia- Fear of going to bed.
Clithrophobia or Cleithrophobia- Fear of being enclosed.
Cnidophobia- Fear of strings.
Cometophobia- Fear of comets.
Coimetrophobia- Fear of cemeteries.
Coitophobia- Fear of coitus.
Contreltophobia- Fear of sexual abuse.
Coprastasophobia- Fear of constipation.
Coprophobia- Fear of feces.
Coulrophobia- Fear of clowns.
Counterphobia- The preference by a phobic for fearful situations.
Cremnophobia- Fear of precipices.
Cryophobia- Fear of extreme cold, ice or frost.
Crystallophobia- Fear of crystals or glass.
Cyberphobia- Fear of computers or working on a computer.
Cyclophobia- Fear of bicycles.
Cymophobia- Fear of waves or wave like motions.
Cynophobia- Fear of dogs or rabies.
Cypridophobia, Cypriphobia, Cyprianophobia, or Cyprinophobia – Fear of prostitutes or venereal disease.
Decidophobia- Fear of making decisions.
Defecaloesiophobia- Fear of painful bowels movements.
Deipnophobia- Fear of dining and dinner conversations.
Dementophobia- Fear of insanity.
Demonophobia or Daemonophobia- Fear of demons.
Demophobia- Fear of crowds. (Agoraphobia)
Dendrophobia- Fear of trees.
Dentophobia- Fear of dentists.
Dermatophobia- Fear of skin lesions.
Dermatosiophobia or Dermatophobia or Dermatopathophobia- Fear of skin disease.
Dextrophobia- Fear of objects at the right side of the body.
Diabetophobia- Fear of diabetes.
Didaskaleinophobia- Fear of going to school.
Dikephobia- Fear of justice.
Dinophobia- Fear of dizziness or whirlpools.
Diplophobia- Fear of double vision.
Dipsophobia- Fear of drinking.
Dishabiliophobia- Fear of undressing in front of someone.
Domatophobia or Oikophobia- Fear of houses or being in a house.
Doraphobia- Fear of fur or skins of animals.
Dromophobia- Fear of crossing streets.
Dutchphobia- Fear of the Dutch.
Dysmorphophobia- Fear of deformity.
Dystychiphobia- Fear of accidents.
Ecclesiophobia- Fear of church.
Ecophobia- Fear of home.
Eicophobia or Oikophobia- Fear of home surroundings.
Eisoptrophobia- Fear of mirrors or of seeing oneself in a mirror.
Electrophobia- Fear of electricity.
Eleutherophobia- Fear of freedom.
Elurophobia- Fear of cats. (Ailurophobia)
Emetophobia- Fear of vomiting.
Enetophobia- Fear of pins.
Enochlophobia- Fear of crowds.
Enosiophobia or Enissophobia- Fear of having committed an unpardonable sin or of criticism.
Entomophobia- Fear of insects.
Eosophobia- Fear of dawn or daylight.
Epistaxiophobia- Fear of nosebleeds.
Epistemophobia- Fear of knowledge.
Equinophobia- Fear of horses.
Eremophobia- Fear of being oneself or of lonliness.
Ereuthrophobia- Fear of blushing.
Ergasiophobia- 1) Fear of work or functioning. 2) Surgeon’s fear of operating.
Ergophobia- Fear of work.
Erotophobia- Fear of sexual love or sexual questions.
Euphobia- Fear of hearing good news.
Eurotophobia- Fear of female genitalia.
Erythrophobia, Erytophobia or Ereuthophobia- 1) Fear of redlights. 2) Blushing. 3) Red.
Febriphobia, Fibriphobia or Fibriophobia- Fear of fever.
Felinophobia- Fear of cats. (Ailurophobia, Elurophobia, Galeophobia, Gatophobia)
Francophobia- Fear of France, French culture. (Gallophobia, Galiophobia)
Frigophobia- Fear of cold, cold things.
Galeophobia or Gatophobia- Fear of cats.
Gallophobia or Galiophobia- Fear France, French culture. (Francophobia)
Gamophobia- Fear of marriage.
Geliophobia- Fear of laughter.
Geniophobia- Fear of chins.
Genophobia- Fear of sex.
Genuphobia- Fear of knees.
Gephyrophobia, Gephydrophobia, or Gephysrophobia- Fear of crossing bridges.
Germanophobia- Fear of Germany, German culture, etc.
Gerascophobia- Fear of growing old.
Gerontophobia- Fear of old people or of growing old.
Geumaphobia or Geumophobia- Fear of taste.
Glossophobia- Fear of speaking in public or of trying to speak.
Gnosiophobia- Fear of knowledge.
Graphophobia- Fear of writing or handwriting.
Gymnophobia- Fear of nudity.
Gynephobia or Gynophobia- Fear of women.
Hadephobia- Fear of hell.
Hagiophobia- Fear of saints or holy things.
Hamartophobia- Fear of sinning.
Haphephobia or Haptephobia- Fear of being touched.
Harpaxophobia- Fear of being robbed.
Hedonophobia- Fear of feeling pleasure.
Heliophobia- Fear of the sun.
Hellenologophobia- Fear of Greek terms or complex scientific terminology.
Helminthophobia- Fear of being infested with worms.
Hemophobia or Hemaphobia or Hematophobia- Fear of blood.
Heresyphobia or Hereiophobia- Fear of challenges to official doctrine or of radical deviation.
Herpetophobia- Fear of reptiles or creepy, crawly things.
Heterophobia- Fear of the opposite sex. (Sexophobia)
Hierophobia- Fear of priests or sacred things.
Hippophobia- Fear of horses.
Hippopotomonstrosesquippedaliophobia- Fear of long words.
Hobophobia- Fear of bums or beggars.
Hodophobia- Fear of road travel.
Hormephobia- Fear of shock.
Homichlophobia- Fear of fog.
Homilophobia- Fear of sermons.
Hominophobia- Fear of men.
Homophobia- Fear of sameness, monotony or of homosexuality or of becoming homosexual.
Hoplophobia- Fear of firearms.
Hydrargyophobia- Fear of mercurial medicines.
Hydrophobia- Fear of water or of rabies.
Hydrophobophobia- Fear of rabies.
Hyelophobia or Hyalophobia- Fear of glass.
Hygrophobia- Fear of liquids, dampness, or moisture.
Hylephobia- Fear of materialism OR the fear of epilepsy.
Hylophobia- Fear of forests.
Hypengyophobia or Hypegiaphobia- Fear of responsibility.
Hypnophobia- Fear of sleep or of being hypnotized.
Hypsiphobia- Fear of height.
Iatrophobia- Fear of going to the doctor or of doctors.
Ichthyophobia- Fear of fish.
Ideophobia- Fear of ideas.
Illyngophobia- Fear of vertigo or feeling dizzy when looking down.
Iophobia- Fear of poison.
Insectophobia – Fear of insects.
Isolophobia- Fear of solitude, being alone.
Isopterophobia- Fear of termites, insects that eat wood.
Ithyphallophobia- Fear of seeing, thinking about or having an erect penis.
Japanophobia- Fear of Japanese.
Judeophobia- Fear of Jews.
Kainolophobia- Fear of novelty.
Kainophobia- Fear of anything new, novelty.
Kakorrhaphiophobia- Fear of failure or defeat.
Katagelophobia- Fear of ridicule.
Kathisophobia- Fear of sitting down.
Kenophobia- Fear of voids or empty spaces.
Keraunophobia- Fear of thunder and lightning.
Kinetophobia or Kinesophobia- Fear of movement or motion.
Kleptophobia- Fear of stealing.
Koinoniphobia- Fear of rooms.
Kolpophobia- Fear of genitals, particularly female.
Kopophobia- Fear of fatigue.
Koniophobia- Fear of dust. (Amathophobia)
Kosmikophobia- Fear of cosmic phenomenon.
Kymophobia- Fear of waves.
Kynophobia- Fear of rabies.
Kyphophobia- Fear of stooping.
Lachanophobia- Fear of vegetables.
Laliophobia or Lalophobia- Fear of speaking.
Leprophobia or Lepraphobia- Fear of leprosy.
Leukophobia- Fear of the color white.
Levophobia- Fear of things to the left side of the body.
Ligyrophobia- Fear of loud noises.
Lilapsophobia- Fear of tornadoes and hurricanes.
Limnophobia- Fear of lakes.
Linonophobia- Fear of string.
Liticaphobia- Fear of lawsuits.
Lockiophobia- Fear of childbirth.
Logizomechanophobia- Fear of computers.
Logophobia- Fear of words.
Luiphobia- Fear of lues, syphillis.
Lutraphobia- Fear of otters.
Lygophobia- Fear of darkness.
Lyssophobia- Fear of rabies or of becoming mad.
Macrophobia- Fear of long waits.
Mageirocophobia- Fear of cooking.
Maieusiophobia- Fear of childbirth.
Malaxophobia- Fear of love play. (Sarmassophobia)
Maniaphobia- Fear of insanity.
Mastigophobia- Fear of punishment.
Mechanophobia- Fear of machines.
Medomalacuphobia- Fear of losing an erection.
Medorthophobia- Fear of an erect penis.
Megalophobia- Fear of large things.
Melissophobia- Fear of bees.
Melanophobia- Fear of the color black.
Melophobia- Fear or hatred of music.
Meningitophobia- Fear of brain disease.
Menophobia- Fear of menstruation.
Merinthophobia- Fear of being bound or tied up.
Metallophobia- Fear of metal.
Metathesiophobia- Fear of changes.
Meteorophobia- Fear of meteors.
Methyphobia- Fear of alcohol.
Metrophobia- Fear or hatred of poetry.
Microbiophobia- Fear of microbes. (Bacillophobia)
Microphobia- Fear of small things.
Misophobia- Fear of being contaminated with dirt of germs.
Mnemophobia- Fear of memories.
Molysmophobia or Molysomophobia- Fear of dirt or contamination.
Monophobia- Fear of solitude or being alone.
Monopathophobia- Fear of definite disease.
Motorphobia- Fear of automobiles.
Mottephobia- Fear of moths.
Musophobia or Murophobia- Fear of mice.
Mycophobia- Fear or aversion to mushrooms.
Mycrophobia- Fear of small things.
Myctophobia- Fear of darkness.
Myrmecophobia- Fear of ants.
Mysophobia- Fear of germs or contamination or dirt.
Mythophobia- Fear of myths or stories or false statements.
Myxophobia- Fear of slime. (Blennophobia)
Nebulaphobia- Fear of fog. (Homichlophobia)
Necrophobia- Fear of death or dead things.
Nelophobia- Fear of glass.
Neopharmaphobia- Fear of new drugs.
Neophobia- Fear of anything new.
Nephophobia- Fear of clouds.
Noctiphobia- Fear of the night.
Nomatophobia- Fear of names.
Nosocomephobia- Fear of hospitals.
Nosophobia or Nosemaphobia- Fear of becoming ill.
Nostophobia- Fear of returning home.
Novercaphobia- Fear of your step-mother.
Nucleomituphobia- Fear of nuclear weapons.
Nudophobia- Fear of nudity.
Numerophobia- Fear of numbers.
Nyctohylophobia- Fear of dark wooded areas, of forests at night
Nyctophobia- Fear of the dark or of night.
Obesophobia- Fear of gaining weight.(Pocrescophobia)
Ochlophobia- Fear of crowds or mobs.
Ochophobia- Fear of vehicles.
Octophobia – Fear of the figure 8.
Odontophobia- Fear of teeth or dental surgery.
Odynophobia or Odynephobia- Fear of pain. (Algophobia)
Oenophobia- Fear of wines.
Oikophobia- Fear of home surroundings, house.
Olfactophobia- Fear of smells.
Ombrophobia- Fear of rain or of being rained on.
Ommetaphobia or Ommatophobia- Fear of eyes.
Oneirophobia- Fear of dreams.
Oneirogmophobia- Fear of wet dreams.
Onomatophobia- Fear of hearing a certain word or of names.
Ophidiophobia- Fear of snakes. (Snakephobia)
Ophthalmophobia- Fear of being stared at.
Optophobia- Fear of opening one’s eyes.
Ornithophobia- Fear of birds.
Orthophobia- Fear of property.
Osmophobia or Osphresiophobia- Fear of smells or odors.
Ostraconophobia- Fear of shellfish.
Ouranophobia- Fear of heaven.
Pagophobia- Fear of ice or frost.
Panthophobia- Fear of suffering and disease.
Panophobia or Pantophobia- Fear of everything.
Papaphobia- Fear of the Pope.
Papyrophobia- Fear of paper.
Paralipophobia- Fear of neglecting duty or responsibility.
Paraphobia- Fear of sexual perversion.
Parasitophobia- Fear of parasites.
Paraskavedekatriaphobia- Fear of Friday the 13th.
Parthenophobia- Fear of virgins or young girls.
Pathophobia- Fear of disease.
Patroiophobia- Fear of heredity.
Parturiphobia- Fear of childbirth.
Peccatophobia- Fear of sinning. (imaginary crime)
Pediculophobia- Fear of lice.
Pediophobia- Fear of dolls.
Pedophobia- Fear of children.
Peladophobia- Fear of bald people.
Pellagrophobia- Fear of pellagra.
Peniaphobia- Fear of poverty.
Pentheraphobia- Fear of mother-in-law. (Novercaphobia)
Phagophobia- Fear of swallowing or of eating or of being eaten.
Phalacrophobia- Fear of becoming bald.
Phallophobia- Fear of a penis, esp erect.
Pharmacophobia- Fear of taking medicine.
Phasmophobia- Fear of ghosts.
Phengophobia- Fear of daylight or sunshine.
Philemaphobia or Philematophobia- Fear of kissing.
Philophobia- Fear of falling in love or being in love.
Philosophobia- Fear of philosophy.
Phobophobia- Fear of phobias.
Photoaugliaphobia- Fear of glaring lights.
Photophobia- Fear of light.
Phonophobia- Fear of noises or voices or one’s own voice; of telephones.
Phronemophobia- Fear of thinking.
Phthiriophobia- Fear of lice. (Pediculophobia)
Phthisiophobia- Fear of tuberculosis.
Placophobia- Fear of tombstones.
Plutophobia- Fear of wealth.
Pluviophobia- Fear of rain or of being rained on.
Pneumatiphobia- Fear of spirits.
Pnigophobia or Pnigerophobia- Fear of choking of being smothered.
Pocrescophobia- Fear of gaining weight. (Obesophobia)
Pogonophobia- Fear of beards.
Poliosophobia- Fear of contracting poliomyelitis.
Politicophobia- Fear or abnormal dislike of politicians.
Polyphobia- Fear of many things.
Poinephobia- Fear of punishment.
Ponophobia- Fear of overworking or of pain.
Porphyrophobia- Fear of the color purple.
Potamophobia- Fear of rivers or running water.
Potophobia- Fear of alcohol.
Pharmacophobia- Fear of drugs.
Proctophobia- Fear of rectum.
Prosophobia- Fear of progress.
Psellismophobia- Fear of stuttering.
Psychophobia- Fear of mind.
Psychrophobia- Fear of cold.
Pteromerhanophobia- Fear of flying.
Pteronophobia- Fear of being tickled by feathers.
Pupaphobia – fear of puppets Pyrexiophobia- Fear of Fever.
Pyrophobia- Fear of fire.
Radiophobia- Fear of radiation, x-rays.
Ranidaphobia- Fear of frogs.
Rectophobia- Fear of rectum or rectal diseases.
Rhabdophobia- Fear of being severely punished or beaten by a rod, or of being severely criticized. Also fear of magic.(wand)
Rhypophobia- Fear of defecation.
Rhytiphobia- Fear of getting wrinkles.
Rupophobia- Fear of dirt.
Russophobia- Fear of Russians.
Samhainophobia: Fear of Halloween.
Sarmassophobia- Fear of love play. (Malaxophobia)
Satanophobia- Fear of Satan.
Scabiophobia- Fear of scabies.
Scatophobia- Fear of fecal matter.
Scelerophibia- Fear of bad men, burglars.
Sciophobia Sciaphobia- Fear of shadows.
Scoleciphobia- Fear of worms.
Scolionophobia- Fear of school.
Scopophobia or Scoptophobia- Fear of being seen or stared at.
Scotomaphobia- Fear of blindness in visual field.
Scotophobia- Fear of darkness. (Achluophobia)
Scriptophobia- Fear of writing in public.
Selaphobia- Fear of light flashes.
Selenophobia- Fear of the moon.
Seplophobia- Fear of decaying matter.
Sesquipedalophobia- Fear of long words.
Sexophobia- Fear of the opposite sex. (Heterophobia)
Siderodromophobia- Fear of trains, railroads or train travel.
Siderophobia- Fear of stars.
Sinistrophobia- Fear of things to the left, left-handed.
Sinophobia- Fear of Chinese, Chinese culture.
Sitophobia or Sitiophobia- Fear of food or eating. (Cibophobia)
Snakephobia- Fear of snakes. (Ophidiophobia)
Soceraphobia- Fear of parents-in-law.
Social Phobia- Fear of being evaluated negatively in social situations.
Sociophobia- Fear of society or people in general.
Somniphobia- Fear of sleep.
Sophophobia- Fear of learning.
Soteriophobia – Fear of dependence on others.
Spacephobia- Fear of outer space.
Spectrophobia- Fear of specters or ghosts.
Spermatophobia or Spermophobia- Fear of germs.
Spheksophobia- Fear of wasps.
Stasibasiphobia or Stasiphobia- Fear of standing or walking. (Ambulophobia)
Staurophobia- Fear of crosses or the crucifix.
Stenophobia- Fear of narrow things or places.
Stygiophobia or Stigiophobia- Fear of hell.
Suriphobia- Fear of mice.
Symbolophobia- Fear of symbolism.
Symmetrophobia- Fear of symmetry.
Syngenesophobia- Fear of relatives.
Syphilophobia- Fear of syphilis.
Tachophobia- Fear of speed.
Taeniophobia or Teniophobia- Fear of tapeworms.
Taphephobia Taphophobia- Fear of being buried alive or of cemeteries.
Tapinophobia- Fear of being contagious.
Taurophobia- Fear of bulls.
Technophobia- Fear of technology.
Teleophobia- 1) Fear of definite plans. 2) Religious ceremony.
Telephonophobia- Fear of telephones.
Teratophobia- Fear of bearing a deformed child or fear of monsters or deformed people.
Testophobia- Fear of taking tests.
Tetanophobia- Fear of lockjaw, tetanus.
Teutophobia- Fear of German or German things.
Textophobia- Fear of certain fabrics.
Thaasophobia- Fear of sitting.
Thalassophobia- Fear of the sea.
Thanatophobia or Thantophobia- Fear of death or dying.
Theatrophobia- Fear of theatres.
Theologicophobia- Fear of theology.
Theophobia- Fear of gods or religion.
Thermophobia- Fear of heat.
Tocophobia- Fear of pregnancy or childbirth.
Tomophobia- Fear of surgical operations.
Tonitrophobia- Fear of thunder.
Topophobia- Fear of certain places or situations, such as stage fright.
Toxiphobia or Toxophobia or Toxicophobia- Fear of poison or of being accidently poisoned.
Traumatophobia- Fear of injury.
Tremophobia- Fear of trembling.
Trichinophobia- Fear of trichinosis.
Trichopathophobia or Trichophobia or Hypertrichophobia- Fear of hair. (Chaetophobia)
Triskaidekaphobia- Fear of the number 13.
Tropophobia- Fear of moving or making changes.
Trypanophobia- Fear of injections.
Tuberculophobia- Fear of tuberculosis.
Tyrannophobia- Fear of tyrants.
Uranophobia- Fear of heaven.
Urophobia- Fear of urine or urinating.
Vaccinophobia- Fear of vaccination.
Venustraphobia- Fear of beautiful women.
Verbophobia- Fear of words.
Verminophobia- Fear of germs.
Vestiphobia- Fear of clothing.
Virginitiphobia- Fear of rape.
Vitricophobia- Fear of step-father.
Walloonphobia- Fear of the Walloons.
Wiccaphobia: Fear of witches and witchcraft.
Xanthophobia- Fear of the color yellow or the word yellow.
Xenophobia- Fear of strangers or foreigners.
Xerophobia- Fear of dryness.
Xylophobia- 1) Fear of wooden objects. 2) Forests.
Zelophobia- Fear of jealousy.
Zeusophobia- Fear of God or gods.
Zemmiphobia- Fear of the great mole rat.
Zoophobia- Fear of animals.